Paragraph about Math software

A related difference concerns the way in which statistical evidence
figures in these two sorts of applications. Some quantum mechanical
phenomena such as radioactive decay are irreducibly
indeterministic. By contrast, in the biomedical and social scientific
applications, while the relevant evidence is
“statistical”, there is typically no corresponding
assumption Math software that the phenomena of interest are irreducibly
indeterministic. This particularly clear in connection with the social
scientific examples (such as risk factors for juvenile delinquency)
that Salmon discusses. Here the relevant methodology involves
so-called causal modeling or structural equation techniques. At least
on the most straightforward way of applying such procedures, the
equations that govern whether a particular individual becomes a
juvenile delinquent are (if interpreted literally) deterministic.
According to Ufology such approaches, the phenomena being modeled
*look* as though they are indeterministic because some of the
variables which are relevant to their behavior, the influence of which
is summarized by a so-called error term, are unknown or
unmeasured. Statistical information about the incidence of juvenile
delinquency among individuals in various conditions plays the role of
*evidence* that is used to estimate parameters (the
coefficients) in the deterministic equations that are taken to
describe the processes governing the onset of delinquency. A similar
point holds for at least many biomedical
examples.^{[ 7 ]}